CMC could be used as flocculating agent, chelating agent, emulsifier, thickening agent, water-retaining agent, sizing agent, and film-forming material, and so on. 3. Define emulsion with example. 4. Foaming agent: Foaming agent for separation of gold and silver ores, commonly used are 2 # oil, turpentine, camphor oil, dipyridine and formic acid, the amount of which is generally 20100 g/t. In coagulation, a non-toxic agglomerating agent such as Ferric Chloride (F e Cl) or alum is added to the water to bring all the suspended particles together to form clumps which can easily be removed from wastewater by filtration. Flocculating agents decreases zeta potential of the suspended charged particle and thus cause . Selon le diamètre et l'épaisseur des clapets on obtient plus ou moins de résistance au passage de l'huile. Flocculating agents are chemical additives that cause suspended solids to form aggregates called flocs. 3.5 to 8 Water-in-Oil Emulsifiers HLB ca. M.PHARM 2nd sem. PDF | On Jan 1, 2009, Melgardt M De Villiers published Antimicrobial Preservatives | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate These agents act as flocculating agents because part of the chain is adsorbed on the particle surface, with the remaining parts projecting out into the dispersion medium. One of the properties of a well-formulated suspension is that it can be easily re-suspended by the use of moderate agitation or shaking. Surface-active agents suitable for stabilization of w/o and o/w emulsions have an HLB value varying between 3 and 6 and between 8 and 18, respectively, while surface-active agents having an HLB value varying between 7 and 9 are mainly utilized as food humectants. 5. NOW YOU CAN ALSO PUBLISH YOUR ARTICLE ONLINE. Preservatives. They learn how the amount of suspended solids in water is measured using the basic properties of matter and light. Examples of flocculating agents are: • Neutral electrolytes such as KCl, NaCl. Enumerate different types of emulsions. Write any two advantages and disadvantages of emulsions. Flocculation uses a chemical polymer (flocculating agent) to precipitate the clumped particles out of the water by forming larger particles, or flocs. Name any two flocculating and deflocculating agents. Since gravity sedimentation depends on gravity and usually requires a long time for precipitation, it is more feasible for larger and heavy cells. Singh et al. These materials are excellent flocculating agents. polyacrylamide onto natural polymer like CMC. 2. 30. Classify emulsifying agents. 7. Students experience firsthand one of the most common water treatment types in the industry today, flocculants. 26. Ferrous Chloride, Crystal, Technical is used in the laboratory synthesis of iron complexes and as a reducing flocculating agent in wastewater treatment, Agar, Powder, NF . (cationic) in aqueous solution and is used as a flocculating agent to purify drinking water Chemistry linear co-polymer of (1-4) linked glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. In such case, the efficiency of CS as the flocculating agent is greatly reduced. Antioxidants. Excipient used in aerosol Propellant: Developing pressure in container which expels the product: Trichloromonofluoromethane, Dichlorodifluoromethane, etc. Enumerate the evaluation methods of suspension. , Surfactants, Polymeric flocculating agents. 27. aggregation (floc formation) of the particles. The usual method of removing turbidity is to add a flocculating agent (flocculant). Lowering the surface tension lowers the energy required to spread drops onto a film, thus weakening the cohesive properties of the liquid and strengthening its adhesive properties. Tonicity adjusting agents. 31. There are suspensions that can be either flocculated or deflocculated. Mineral processingmetallurgyBritannica . Buffering agents. • Flocculating agents are added to reduce the electrical force of repulsion at a certain concentration resulting in predominance of the attractive force causing the formation of loose aggregates. Flocculating Agent --Zeta-potential 13 II. - Samy Kamkar - AppSec California 2016 - Duration: 51:12. Dissolved heavy metal ions and rhamnolipid in water could be removed through micellar- enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) process (between 30% for Cd and 100% for V, and 97.5% for rhamnolipid). This process could be promoted by adding some flocculating agents or by making cells self-aggregating (Vandamme et al., 2013). rhamnolipid as a flocculating agent could bring the remaining oil and also a small amount of insoluble heavy metals from the tailing sediment into the water. That can happen spontaneously or due to the presence of flocculating agents. Chelating agents. Manufacture of liquid dosage forms . The main difference between flocculated and deflocculated suspension is that the rate of sedimentation in a flocculated suspension is rapid whereas the rate of sedimentation in a deflocculated suspension is slow. How does flocculation work in water treatment? They act by reducing the zeta potential of suspended charged particles to zero and thus cause aggregation or floc formation of the particles. Flocculating agents: Prevent caking: Starch, Sodium alginate, Carbomer.etc. Name any four flocculating agents used in preparation of suspension. Wetting agents are substances that reduce the surface tension of water to allow it to spread drops onto a surface, increasing the spreading abilities of a liquid. Bentonite, Powder, NF. 28. These aggregates settle quickly, and are not bound 6. Title Biomass… Formulation of Emulsions 14 Emulsification Emulsifier 15 HLB and Use of Surfactants Amphiphilic surfactants are characterized by the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) a relative ratio of polar and non-polar groups in the surfactant HLB ca. Addition of flocculating agents (inorganic salt, organic polyelectrolyte, mineral hydrocolloid) is often necessary to achieve appropriate flocculation. They act by shrinking the ionic double layer, or neutralizing the surface charge of suspended particles, or bridging between particles. BYK-P 104 is an additive which has a much less controlling flocculating effect. Bridging between these latter portions leads to the formation of flocs. The most widely used controlled flocculating wetting and dispersing additives are ANTI-TERRA-204, which is used in a variety of ways in solvent-borne fillers and primer surfacers, and ANTI-TERRA-250, which is applied in aqueous systems. It accoun… Deacetylated chitin to chitosan Decalcification-Dilute HCL Deproteination-Dilute NaOH Decolorization- … Preparation of suspension Srijan App. Flocculating Agents flocculating agents decreases zeta potential of the suspended charged particle and thus cause aggregation (flock formation) of the particles. 64-68. have reported the synthesis and applications of graft copolymers of. Agar, Powder, NF is used in the pharmaceutical industry for many applications such as a suspending agent, surgical lubricants and in preparations of emulsions, suspensions and capsules. 29. In addition, they learn about the types of solids that can be found in water and the reasons that some are easier to remove than others. Suspending agent excipients help active pharmaceutical ingredients stay suspended in the formulation and prevent caking at the bottom of the container. Solvent systems. CMC is also widely applied in fields such as electronics, pesticides, leather, plastics, printing, ceramics, and the daily-use chemical industry. 1 to 3.5 Antifoams HLB ca. These are neutral electrolytes that are capable of preventing caking of suspended solids. References: 1. These are most often metallic salts that can form gel-like hydroxide precipitates, often with the aid of added calcium hydroxide (quicklime) if pH of the water must be raised. Flocculating agents. Flocculating / suspending agents. Wetting agents. 8. 32. Natural gums are polysaccharides of natural origin, capable of causing a large increase in a solution's viscosity, even at small concentrations.They are mostly botanical gums, found in the woody elements of plants or in seed coatings.. Human uses. • Sulfate, citrates, phosphates salts . 1 | P a g e Chapter 1: Introduction Fluorine is a common element that does not occur in the elemental state in nature because of its high reactivity. 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